Technology Development

COVID-19 Projects

Remote, Socially-Distanced Procedural Training

Our SMMARTS-compliant simulators are capable of supporting remote learning of procedural skills with little or no modification using publicly available video conferencing software.

PanVent Open-Source Ventilator Project

The  PanVent Open-Source Ventilator Project was created in March of 2020 to address predicted ventilator shortages worldwide due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Along with the support of a worldwide network of coders, engineers, ham radio operators and physicians, the CSSALT team has been rapidly designing and building a low-cost, DIY ventilator using hardware store parts.

Background On Our Technology Development

Mannequin patient simulator

The University of Florida has a long and rich tradition of innovation in the development of simulation technology. CSSALT is at the forefront of technology development for simulation in healthcare.

Researchers at CSSALT spearheaded mannequin patient simulator research and development in the mid-80’s, developing what was to become the Human Patient Simulator (HPS) technology that is manufactured in Sarasota, FL and sold worldwide by Medical Education Technologies, Inc. (METI).

When the webbecame stable and user-friendly in the late 90’s, this tradition of innovation was sustained with the development of the web-enabled Virtual Anesthesia Machine (VAM) simulation and its namesake web site with an extensive portfolio of web-enabled simulations.

Beginning in 2006, CSSALT started to develop mixed simulation applications.

Augmented Reality & Mixed Simulation

In augmented reality (AR), virtual information is laid over a physical entity or the representation of a physical entity.

On TV, a common AR example is the yellow first down line when watching American football or the moving black line in a swimming pool or ice-skating rink that represents a pro-rated record time.

Like AR, mixed medical simulation combines virtual and physical elements during a simulation.

See Examples of Mixed Simulation

Screen-Based & Web-Based Simulation

Mobile Devices

Pragmatic Precision Medicine: Race Specific Propofol Model

See more simulations on our YouTube page

Panoramic Simulations

An environment that surrounds a user can be readily simulated using a photorealistic panoramic scrollable interface that facilitates turning around in any direction. Users can interact with objects by clicking on their representation in the panoramic background or on thumbnails that are shortcuts. The interface can help novices become familiar with the layout of a real environment.

The video below displays a UF demo version of a healthcare simulation that was developed for a drug manufacturer. The user plays the role of anesthesiologist in the simulation and takes a patient through a general endotracheal anesthetic from induction to emergence. The anesthesia provider’s perspective of the patient, machine, drug cart, IV pole, airway cart, ceiling hung display and other equipment is preserved.

This technology is available for licensing. Contact Sem Lampotang for more information.

Transparent Reality Simulation

Transparent Reality is a dynamic visualization technique where the internal structure and hidden or invisible processes are made visible. Abstract and invisible functions, processes and concepts are represented with explicitly visible and adjustable symbols to assist users in exploring, developing and confirming mental models. For example, gas flow is not only made visible but color coded via coloring and movement of gas molecule icons within the plumbing of an anesthesia machine. The flagship transparent reality simulation is the Virtual Anesthesia Machine (VAM).

Anesthesia machines are good examples of black boxes. The internal workings and gas flows are hidden from the user. They are life support systems and user error accounts for 75% of deaths or permanent brain injury associated with anesthesia machines. The VAM has been online free of charge since 1999. It has been translated into 23 languages and six medical gas color codes.

This technology is available for licensing. Contact Sem Lampotang for more information.

Web-enabled Simulation

There is a large portfolio of web-enabled simulations here. These medical simulations are mostly anesthesia-related and cover areas of anesthesia machines, pharmacokinetics, spinal anesthesia, drug uptake and distribution models, and anesthesia physics.

Many of these are available free of charge.

Virtual Humans

Virtual HumansBreast Exam

Virtual human simulations have been used in combination with breast exam part task trainers at the University of Florida CISE Department’s VERG group.

Conscious Sedation

The University of Texas San Antonio and the University of Florida have received funding from the National Library of Medicine to investigate the use of mixed simulators and virtual humans in managing inter-patient variability to propofol during conscious sedation.

Pre-op Skills

Adam Wendling, MD, Associate Professor of Anesthesiology, University of Florida, has been using virtual humans to train clinicians in pre-operative skills. This research has recently been published in Academic Medicine.

Patient Safety Projects


Motion artifact vulnerability is generally regarded as undesirable during pulse oximetry. This pilot study examined the feasibility of exploiting induced motion artifact to identify response to verbal commands, for monitoring consciousness, for example, during procedural sedation or postoperative analgesia.

The video below demonstrates a pulse oximeter monitor.

Technology Development Subpages

Open Source Ventilator Project

Augmented Reality & Mixed Simulation