Cross-Sectional Literacy and Ultrasonography Trainer

This robust, turnkey mixed reality simulator is designed to help novices understand and acquire fundamental cross-sectional literacy and ultrasonography (US) skills.

Based on the premise that it is a cognitive overload for novices to learn both US skills and unfamiliar anatomy, the trainer gets rid of anatomy as a “distraction” so that learners can focus on hands-on US skills acquisition. Anatomy is instead replaced by virtual regular and familiar 3D objects like cylinders, cubes, and pyramids.

Designed for austere environments, this procedure-agnostic simulator does not require wireless or internet access or wet fluids; accepts 110/220V, 50/60Hz. It can be unpacked/set up/be operational by an unfamiliar person in 5-7 minutes. The portable simulator fits inside a military-spec padded case with inbuilt wheels and telescoping pull-handle that meets airline checked luggage size limits (L+W+H=60”), weight < 50 lbs.



  • Virtual, regular, and familiar 3D objects such as cones and cylinders encased in gel
  • Virtual model of simplified targets and no go areas
  • Tracked instruments: needle, ultrasound probe, virtual camera (interoperable between SMMARTS-compliant simulators)
  • Common SMMARTS modular stand for use with other modular anatomies and procedures
  • Automated scoring and replay system for after action review (AAR)
  • Instructional materials teach fundamental cross-sectional literacy skills and ultrasonography techniques and procedures

UST sim set-up




  • PART; use all DoF of US probe
  • Scout Scan
  • Needling; tilt peek and slide
  • Maintaining a short axis view while following a vessel
  • Sidedness


  • Adheres to SMMARTS (System of modular, mixed and augmented reality tracking simulators) rapid sim. development platform specs
  • Quick-release placement and indexing of SMMARTS-compliant anatomies to SMMARTS platform
  • Uses familiar, regular 3D objects like cylinders and cones that have readily recognizable reference planes or features
  • Precise sub-millimeter tracking of all events
  • High-durability skin can be rejuvenated in-situ for indefinite re-use


  • Integrated structured curriculum
  • Adjustable virtual ultrasound targets and difficulty levels
  • Adjustable view modes for realism and AARs
  • Ultrasound probe with depth markers
  • Debriefing with replay of past/saved procedure
  • Hybrid cross-sectional view (3D viz in back half)
  • Anisotropy simulation for needles and other objects
  • Cognitive aids for US probe and needle orientation
  • Tactile feedback of bone and ligament puncture

Screenshot of UST simulator

Screenshot of UST simulator